Sunday, July 24, 2016

Chronology of the Turin Shroud: AD 30 to the present: 1st century and Index

Chronology of the Turin Shroud: AD 30 to the present
© Stephen E. Jones

This is part #1 of my new "Chronology of the Turin Shroud: AD 30 to the present" series which is also its index. This series supersedes my previous "Chronology of the Turin Shroud" series in which I became bogged down with too much detail. In this new series, I am going to emulate the brief format of Ian Wilson's "Highlights of the Undisputed History." Each century will have a page, and if a page becomes too long I will split it and post the split-off part. To save space I won't normally have references but rely mostly on links. Unwritten references will include Wilson's "Shroud Chronology AD 30 to 2010." Individual years can be accessed by appending "#yyyy" to the page link, e.g. "" goes to year 30, etc. After a page is posted, if I add to it in the background I will notify the updates in my Shroud of Turin News "Editorials." See updates 50, 57 and 60.

[Next: 2nd century #2]

Centuries: [1st] [2nd] [3rd] [4th] [5th] [6th] [7th] [8th] [9th] [10th] [11th] [12th] [13th] [14th] [15th] [16th] [17th] [18th] [19th] [20th] [21st]
1st century (001-100)
30 Friday, April 7, 30. Jesus was crucified (Mt 27:35; Mk 15:24; Lk 23:33; Jn 19:18) and died (Mt 27:50; Mk 15:37; Lk 23:46; Jn 19:30). Joseph of Arimathea bought a linen Shroud [Gk. sindon], took Jesus' body down from the cross, bound His hands and feet with linen strips [othonia] (Jn 19:40), wrapped Jesus' body in the shroud [Right: "The Holy Shroud," by G.B. della Rovere (1561-1627)] and laid Him in a cave tomb (Mt 27:59-60; Mk 15:46; Lk 23:53).

Sunday, April 9, 30. The Apostles Peter and John enter Jesus' tomb. They find the linen strips [othonia] lying where they had been around Jesus' hands and feet (Jn 20:5-6), and the facecloth [soudarion = the Sudarium of Oviedo] which had been on [epi] the top of Jesus' head, where there is a gap between the front and back images on the Shroud, but they find no shroud [sindon]. John was immediately convinced from the pattern of the graveclothes that Jesus had risen from the dead (Jn 20:6-9), as He had predicted (Mt 16:21; 17:22-23; 20:18-19; 27:63-64; Mk 8:31; 9:31; 10:34; Lk 9:22; 18:33; 24:7,46; Jn 2:19). John would have realised that graverobbers would have either taken Jesus' graveclothes and left His body, or they would have taken Jesus' body still wrapped in His graveclothes, but they would not have taken Jesus' body and left the linen strips [othonia] which had been tied around Jesus' hands and feet (Jn 11:44). Especially if those linen strips were still "looped together and knotted exactly as they had bound the hands and the feet," of Jesus' body, which having been resurrected had passed through them (Jn 20:19-29). Or rather they had passed through Jesus' "mechanically transparent" resurrected body! One of the earliest Christian writings, the Gospel of the Hebrews, recorded that Jesus took His shroud with Him out of the tomb and gave it to the "Servant of the Priest," presumably the Apostle John.

50 Death of Edessa's King Abgar V. According to the early church historian Eusebius (c. 260-340), King Abgar V (BC 4–AD 50) of Edessa had written to Jesus asking Him to come and heal him and Jesus had replied to Abgar by letter promising that after His resurrection He would send one of His disciples to Edessa to heal Abgar and preach the Gospel. According to Eusebius, Thaddeus, one of the Seventy (Lk 10:1-17), did go to Edessa, healed Abgar V [Left: 10th century depiction of Abgar V receiving the Mandylion (the Shroud four-doubled) from Thaddeus (see future "c.945")], and commenced Christianity there. While historian J.B. Segal (1912–2003), considered that this account "may well have a substratum of fact," he regarded the part of it about the exchange of letters between Abgar V and Jesus, which Eusebius had personally read in Edessa's archives [see future "325"], was a "pious fraud," which unknown to Eusebius had been inserted into Edessa's archives in the time of Abgar VIII (177 to 212), who was the first Christian king of Edessa (see "177"). But as will be seen, Eusebius' account says nothing about Abgar V being healed by an image of Jesus on a cloth, which (as we shall see, and see above) later versions of the Abgar V story do say. The pilgrim Spanish nun Egeria in c.384 recorded that she had seen the text of Jesus' letter to Abgar V affixed to Edessa' city gate [see future "c. 384"].

57 Death of Ma'nu V (r. 50–57), son of Abgar V, who had succeeded him as king of Osroene, the capital city of which was Edessa. Ma'nu V is succeeded by Ma'nu VI (r. 57–71).

c. 60 According to the 945 "Official History of the Image of Edessa" [see 25Apr16], King Ma'nu VI reverted to paganism and persecuted Edessa's Christians. To ensure the safety of "the likeness of our Lord Jesus Christ not made by hand" which had been fastened to a board and embellished with gold, i.e. the Mandylion (the Shroud "four-doubled" = tetradiplon), was supposedly bricked up above the public gate of Edessa, where it had previously laid, and then was completely forgotten for almost five centuries until its discovery after another major flood in 525 [see "525"]. However, this story is most implausible (did Ma'nu VI, or none of his officials, not notice, nor suspect, that the Mandylion they were seeking to destroy, was where it had previously been but only behind fresh brickwork?), and is more likely a "pious fraud" to give the Mandylion/Shroud, which is known in Edessa only from 544 [see "544"], a false back-history to the time of Jesus.

Continued in part #2, "2nd century," of this series.

1. This post is copyright. Permission is granted to quote from any part of this post (but not the whole post), provided it includes a reference citing my name, its subject heading, its date, and a hyperlink back to this page. [return]

Posted: 24 July 2016. Updated: 25 March 2017.


Stephen E. Jones said...


>What is the source of the first picture? The painting of the shroud.

As it says: "[Right: `The Holy Shroud, by G.B. della Rovere (1561-1627)]"

Stephen E. Jones
MY POLICIES. Comments are moderated. Those I consider off-topic, offensive or sub-standard will not appear. Except that comments under my latest post can be on any Shroud-related topic. I normally allow only one comment per individual under each one of my posts.

Kyle Wright said...

Bah, sorry. Anyway, enjoying the blog, keep it up.

Stephen E. Jones said...


>Bah, sorry.

It was easy to miss.

Anyway, enjoying the blog, keep it up.


Stephen E. Jones