Tuesday, January 24, 2017

Chronology of the Turin Shroud: Seventh century

Chronology of the Turin Shroud: AD 30 to the present
© Stephen E. Jones

This is part #7, "Seventh century," of my "Chronology of the Turin Shroud: AD 30 - present" series. For more information about this series See part #1, "First century" and index.

[Index #1] [Previous: 6th century #6] [Next: 8th century #8]

7th century (601-700)

[Above (enlarge) Gold solidus coin[2], minted 692-95 by Byzantine Emperor Justinian II (668–711)[3]. The face of Jesus on the coin has many "Vignon markings" features found on the face of the man on Shroud, including wrinkles in the Shroud cloth, proving beyond reasonable doubt that the 7th century designer of this coin had the Shroud as his model! See ["692"] below.]

614 The Sudarium of Oviedo, the "face cloth" or "napkin" in John

[Above (enlarge): "Comparison of the Sudarium of Oviedo and the Shroud of Turin"[4]. "The most striking thing about all the stains [on the Sudarium of Oviedo] is that they coincide exactly with the face of the image on the Turin Shroud."[5] (my emphasis).]

20:7[6], leaves Jerusalem in its chest (the present day Arca Santa) ahead of an impending invasion by the Persian king Khosrow II (r. 590-628)[6a]. In 616 the Sudarium enters Spain from Jerusalem via Alexandria at Cartagena and is taken to Seville and placed in the custody of St. Isidore (c.560–636), Archbishop of Seville.[7]. Bloodstains, particularly those on the back of the head of the Sudarium of Oviedo are so similar in appearance to those on the corresponding part of the Shroud, that it is evident that the two cloths were in contact with the same wounded body within the same short time period[8]. Since the Sudarium has been in Spain since the seventh century, this is further evidence that the medieval forgery theory and "mediaeval ... AD 1260-1390 radiocarbon date of the Shroud are wrong[9].

633 The Mozarabic Rite of Roman Catholics living under Muslim rule in Iberian Spain, which may have originated in the sixth century under Saint Leandro, Bishop of Seville (c.534–601)[10], was given its final form in 633 at the Fourth Council of Toledo, Spain[11]. The Illatio or preface of the rite states, "Peter ran to the tomb with John and saw the recent imprints of the dead and risen one on the cloths"[12].

639 Edessa was conquered by the Muslim army under the Rashidun Caliphate[13]. The Image of Edessa/Shroud which was in Edessa [see "544"] fell under Muslim control and remained so for over 300 years until 943[14]. [see future "943"]. The conquest was peaceable[15] and indeed Edessa's Syriac-speaking population were happy to be liberated from the Greek-speaking Byzantine rule from Constantinople[16]. In return, Edessan Christians were allowed by their Muslim overlords to continue their religious observances, including veneration of the Image of Edessa/Shroud[17], and Edessa's Hagia Sophia cathedral was preserved[18].

670 A Bishop Arculf of Perigueux, France[19], returning from a pilgrimage to the Holy Land in 670[20], was shipwrecked on the island of Iona in the Scottish Hebrides[21]. Arculf recounted his pilgrimage to the Abbot of Iona Abbey, Irish scholar and saint Adamnan (c. 624–704)[22], who recorded it in his De Locis Sanctis (i.e. "On Holy Places"), completed in 698[23]. In particular, Adamnan recorded in Latin that in Jerusalem Arculf had seen, "the sudarium of our Lord which was placed over his head in the tomb"[24]. However, Arculf described this cloth as "eight foot long"[25], which is much shorter than the Shroud's fourteen feet[26]. It cannot have been the Shroud folded in two[27] because that would have been 7 feet long, and besides Arculf stated that he had kissed this "sudarium"[28] and that close up he would have noticed that it was folded. It also cannot have been the "face cloth" or "napkin" [Greek soudarion] of John 20:7 (see on the Sudarium of Oviedo above), because that would have been a much smaller cloth[29]. Finally, Arculf did not mention that this "sudarium" had an image of Jesus imprinted on it, which he surely would have, had there been one[30]. Since Latin had no word of its own for the Greek sindon used of the Shroud in the gospels (Mt 27:59; Mk 15:46; Lk 23:53), it was a common confusion in Latin writers that the word "sudarium" was used to mean the much larger Shroud[31]. Some have speculated that what Arculf saw was a single sided copy of the Shroud, such as the Besançon[32] or the Compiegne[33] shroud, but they both had images. So it seems that what Arculf saw was a piece of cloth that had acquired the false reputation of being either the Shroud or the Sudarium. Either way, it is a further testimony to the common knowledge among early Christians that Jesus' burial cloths had been recovered from His tomb and existed in their day!

c.670 The Acts of Thaddaeus, a 7th century[34] update of the Abgar V legend [see "50"], describes Jesus' image as having been imprinted on a tetradiplon ("four-doubled") which was a sindon ("linen sheet"):

"And Ananias [Abgar V's courier], having gone and given the letter, was carefully looking at Christ, but was unable to fix Him in his mind. And He knew as knowing the heart, and asked to wash Himself; and a towel4 was given Him; and when He had washed Himself, He wiped His face with it. And His image having been imprinted upon the linen ... 4Lit., doubled in four."[35]
In the Greek, "towel" is tetradiplon, i.e. tetra "four" + diplon "doubled," and "linen" is sindon, a large linen sheet[36]. See my 2012, "Tetradiplon and the Shroud of Turin" and my recent, "The date of Ian Wilson's tetradiplon = `doubled in four' Shroud experiment," for how doubling the Shroud four times, with the face always uppermost, results in the face centred in landscape aspect, exactly as it is in copies of the Mandylion/Image of Edessa! This is proof beyond reasonable doubt that the Shroud was already in existence as the Mandylion/Image of Edessa `four-doubled' in the 7th century, at least six centuries before its earliest 13th century radiocarbon date!

692 Between 692 and 695 Byzantine Emperor Justinian II (668–711) minted tremissis and solidus[37] coins bearing an image of Jesus' face[38]. The coins are

[Right (enlarge): The Justinian II solidus above cropped to show only the head and neck. Compare this with the corresponding area of the Shroud below.]

inscribed "Jesu Christu, Rex Regnantium" ("Jesus Christ, King of Kings")[39]. They are therefore in the category of Christ Pantocrator [Greek pan "all" and kratos "rule," hence "all-ruling one," "Almighty" (2Cor 6:18; Rev 1:8; 4:8;11:17; 15:3; 16:7,14; 19:6,15; 21:22)] icons[40]. These were the first coins to bear Jesus' image[41].

As can be seen (below left), Jesus' face on the c. 692 solidus coin above, which was evidently based on the Image of Edessa[42], bears a striking resemblance to the face of the man on the Shroud[43].

[Left (enlarge): The Shroud front head and neck[44]. Note that the c.692 solidus coin above depicts as tassels on Jesus' garment what are wrinkles around the neck of the Shroud man! Also note that above the tassels on the coin it depicts three protuber- ances which are also on the Shroud, the middle one on both being Jesus' and the man's Adam's apple (see Enrie negative)!]

These resemblances include long hair that falls behind the shoulders, a long forked beard, a moustache, and a small tuft on the forehead where there is a `reversed 3' bloodstain on the Shroud[45] using his polarized image overlay technique, Dr Alan Whanger found at least 65 points of congruence between this coin and the Shroud face[46]. Yet in a court of law, only 14 points of congruence are sufficient to determine the identity of fingerprints, tire tracks, etc[47]. Even wrinkles in the Shroud fabric were reproduced on the coin (see above)[48]!

By my count [see 23Feb12] there are at least twelve out of the fifteen "Vignon markings" (see below) on the face of Jesus' face on this coin

[Right (enlarge): The Vignon markings: (1) Transverse streak across forehead, (2) three-sided `square' between brows, (3) V shape at bridge of nose, (4) second V within marking 2, (5) raised right eyebrow, (6) accentuated left cheek, (7) accentuated right cheek, (8) enlarged left nostril, (9) accentuated line between nose and upper lip, (10) heavy line under lower lip, (11) hairless area between lower lip and beard, (12) forked beard, (13) transverse line across throat, (14) heavily accentuated owlish eyes, (15) two strands of hair"[49].]

that are also found on the Shroud: "... (2) three-sided `square' between brows, (3) V shape at bridge of nose, ... (6) accentuated left cheek, (7) accentuated right cheek, (8) enlarged left nostril, (9) accentuated line between nose and upper lip, (10) heavy line under lower lip, (11) hairless area between lower lip and beard, (12) forked beard, (13) transverse line across throat, (14) heavily accentuated owlish eyes, (15) two strands of hair."

The face of this solidus coin is a numismatic icon[50] only 9 mm (0.35 in.) high[51]. So many are the points of congruence (see above) between this tiny icon and the Shroud that the coin die maker would have needed to either travel to Edessa where the Image of Edessa/Shroud then was (see 639 above) and copy directly from the Image/Shroud face[52]. Or the die maker in Constantinople would have had to have worked from accurate sketches of the Image/Shroud made by an artist in Edessa[53]. Either way, this 692-695 Justinian II solidus coin is further proof beyond reasonable doubts that the Shroud existed "four-doubled" = tetradiplon as the Image of Edessa (see 670b above) nearly six centuries before the earliest 1260 radiocarbon date!

Continued in part #8 of this series.

1. This post is copyright. Permission is granted to quote from any part of this post (but not the whole post), provided it includes a reference citing my name, its subject heading, its date, and a hyperlink back to this page. [return]
2. Money Museum. No longer online. [return]
3. Whanger, A.D. & M.W., 1991a, "A Quantitative Optical Technique for Analyzing and Authenticating the Images on the Shroud of Turin," in Berard, A., ed., 1991, "History, Science, Theology and the Shroud," Symposium Proceedings, St. Louis Missouri, June 22-23, 1991, The Man in the Shroud Committee of Amarillo, Texas: Amarillo TX, pp.303-324, 308-309; Whanger, M.W. & Whanger, A.D., "The Shroud of Turin: An Adventure of Discovery," Providence House Publishers: Franklin TN, 1998, p.16; Antonacci, M., 2000, "Resurrection of the Shroud: New Scientific, Medical, and Archeological Evidence," M. Evans & Co: New York NY, pp.128-129; Oxley, M., 2010, "The Challenge of the Shroud: History, Science and the Shroud of Turin," AuthorHouse: Milton Keynes UK, p.26. [return]
4. Bennett, J., 2001, "Sacred Blood, Sacred Image: The Sudarium of Oviedo: New Evidence for the Authenticity of the Shroud of Turin," Ignatius Press: San Francisco CA, p.122. [return]
5. Guscin, M., 1998, "The Oviedo Cloth," Lutterworth Press: Cambridge UK, p.27. [return]
6. Whanger & Whanger, 1991a, p.312. [return]
6a. Guscin, 1998, p.14; Iannone, J.C., 1998, "The Mystery of the Shroud of Turin: New Scientific Evidence," St Pauls: Staten Island NY, p.91; Guscin, M., 1999, "Recent Historical Investigations on the Sudarium of Oviedo," in Walsh, B.J., ed., 2000, "Proceedings of the 1999 Shroud of Turin International Research Conference, Richmond, Virginia," Magisterium Press: Glen Allen VA, pp.122-141, 128-129; Guerrera, V., 2001, "The Shroud of Turin: A Case for Authenticity," TAN: Rockford IL, pp.41-42; Guscin, M., 1996, "The Sudarium of Oviedo," British Society for the Turin Shroud Newsletter, No. 43, June/July; Whanger & Whanger, 1998, p.56; Bennett, 2001, pp.28-29, 102a, 194; Whiting, B., 2006, "The Shroud Story," Harbour Publishing: Strathfield NSW, Australia, p.322; Oxley, 2010, pp.182-183; Anderson, M.J., 2015, "The `Other' Shroud of Christ: The Sudarium of Oviedo," Catholic World Report, April 1; Klimczak, N., 2016, "The Shroud of Oviedo: A Legendary Cloth Connected to the Death of Jesus," Ancient Origins, 2 April. [return]
7. Guscin, 1998, pp.14-15; Bennett, 2001, pp.28-31, 194; Guerrera, 2001, p.42. [return]
8. Adler, A.D., 1996, "Updating Recent Studies on the Shroud of Turin," in Adler, A.D. & Crispino, D., ed., 2002, "The Orphaned Manuscript: A Gathering of Publications on the Shroud of Turin," Effatà Editrice: Cantalupa, Italy, pp.81-86, 83. [return]
9. Adler, A.D., 2000, "The Shroud Fabric and the Body Image: Chemical and Physical Characteristics," in Adler & Crispino, 2002, pp.113-127, 124. [return]
10. Guscin, 1998, p.17; Guerrera, 2001, p.42. [return]
11. "Mozarabic Rite," Wikipedia, 1 January 2017. [return]
12. Rinaldi, P.M., 1978, "The Man in the Shroud," [1972], Futura: London, Revised, p.22; Wilson, I., 1979, "The Shroud of Turin: The Burial Cloth of Jesus?," [1978], Image Books: New York NY, Revised edition, p.93; Scavone, D.C., 1989, "The Shroud of Turin: Opposing Viewpoints," Greenhaven Press: San Diego CA, p.76; Guscin, 1998, p.17; Ruffin, C.B., 1999, "The Shroud of Turin: The Most Up-To-Date Analysis of All the Facts Regarding the Church's Controversial Relic," Our Sunday Visitor: Huntington IN, p.56; Guerrera, 2001, p.42. [return]
13. "Edessa: Byzantine period," Wikipedia, 7 January 2017. [return]
14. Currer-Briggs, N., 1988, "The Shroud and the Grail: A Modern Quest for the True Grail," St. Martin's Press: New York NY, p.71; Wilson, I., 1998, "The Blood and the Shroud: New Evidence that the World's Most Sacred Relic is Real," Simon & Schuster: New York NY, p.148. [return]
15. Wilson, 1998, p.267. [return]
16. Wilson, I., 2010, "The Shroud: The 2000-Year-Old Mystery Solved," Bantam Press: London, p.299. [return]
17. Oxley, 2010, p.265. [return]
18. Wilson, 1979, p.254; Morgan, R., 1980, "Perpetual Miracle: Secrets of the Holy Shroud of Turin by an Eye Witness," Runciman Press: Manly NSW, Australia, p.35. [return]
19. Green, M., 1969, "Enshrouded in Silence: In search of the First Millennium of the Holy Shroud," Ampleforth Journal, Vol. 74, No. 3, Autumn, pp.319-345; Wilson, 1979, p.94; Wilson, 2010, p.109. [return]
20. Beecher, P.A., 1928, "The Holy Shroud: Reply to the Rev. Herbert Thurston, S.J.," M.H. Gill & Son: Dublin, p.143; Wilson, 1979, p.94. [return]
21. Wilson, 1979, p.94; Wilson, 2010, p.108. [return]
22. Green, 1969; Wilson, 1979, p.94; "Adomnán," Wikipedia, 15 January 2017. [return]
23. Adamnan, "De Locis Sanctis," Wikipedia, 18 November 2016. [return]
24. Barnes, A.S., 1934, "The Holy Shroud of Turin," Burns Oates & Washbourne: London, p.50; Wilson, 2010, pp.108-109. [return]
25. Wilson, I., 1986, "The Evidence of the Shroud," Guild Publishing: London, p.103; Currer-Briggs, 1988, p.62; Scavone, 1989, p.77. [return]
26. Beecher, 1928, p.144; Wilson, 1979, p.94; Currer-Briggs, 1988, p.62; Scavone, 1989, p.77; Wilson, 2010, p.109. [return]
27. Scavone, 1989, p.76. [return]
28. Wilson, 1979, p.94; Scavone, 1989, p.77. [return]
29. Beecher, 1928, p.144; Wilson, 2010, p.109. [return]
30. Wilson, 1979, p.94; Scavone, 1989, p.76; Wilson, 2010, p.109. [return]
31. Guscin, 1998, pp.11-12. [return]
32. Currer-Briggs, 1988, p.62; Iannone, 1998, p.210; Oxley, 2010, p.113. [return]
33. Wilson, 1979, p.94; Wilson, 1986, p.103. [return]
34. "between A.D. 609 and 726." Guscin, M., 2009, "The Image of Edessa," Brill: Leiden, Netherlands & Boston MA, p.145. [return]
35. Roberts, A. & Donaldson, J., eds, 1951, "The Ante-Nicene Fathers: The Writings of the Fathers down to A.D. 325," Vol. VIII: The Twelve Patriarchs, Excerpts and Epistles, The Clementina, Apocrypha, Decretals, Memoirs of Edessa and Syriac Documents, Remains of the First Ages, Eerdmans: Grand Rapids MI, Reprinted 1974, p.558. [return]
36. Scavone, 1989, p.82; Scavone, D.C., 2002, "Joseph of Arimathea, The Holy Grail & the Edessa Icon," BSTS Newsletter, No. 56, December; Guscin, M., 2009, "The Image of Edessa," Brill: Leiden, Netherlands & Boston MA, p.146; Wilson, 2010, p.140-141. [return]
37. Antonacci, 2000, p.128; Whanger & Whanger, 1991a, p.308; Whanger, A.D. & Whanger, M., 1991b, "Evidence of Early Origin and Nature of the Shroud of Turin by Image Analysis and Optical Comparison," Shroud News. No. 65, June 1991, pp.8-18, 16. [return]
38. Whanger & Whanger, 1991a, p.308; Wilson, I., 1992, "The Shroud Face on a Coin Precisely Datable to 692-5 AD," BSTS Newsletter, No. 30, Dec/Jan, pp.2-4, 2-3; Guerrera, 2001, p.101. [return]
39. Whanger & Whanger, 1998, p.16. [return]
40. Wilson, 1991, p.166; Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.195; Oxley, 2010, p.26. [return]
41. Scavone, D.C., "The History of the Turin Shroud to the 14th C.," in Berard, 1991, p.187; Whanger & Whanger, 1991a, p.308; Wilson, I., 1991, "Holy Faces, Secret Places: The Quest for Jesus' True Likeness," Doubleday: London, p.166; Petrosillo, O. & Marinelli, E., 1996, "The Enigma of the Shroud: A Challenge to Science," Scerri, L.J., transl., Publishers Enterprises Group: Malta, p.195; Wilson, 1998, pp.158, 267; Guerrera, 2001, p.101; Oxley, 2010, p.26. [return]
42. Whanger, 1983, p.303, p.26; Wilson, 1991, p.166; Wilson, 1998, p.267; Oxley, 2010, p.26. [return]
43. Scavone, 1991, p.188; Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.195; Wilson, 1998, pp.158, 267; Oxley, 2010, p.26. [return]
44. Extract from Latendresse, M., 2010, "Shroud Scope: Durante 2002 Vertical," Sindonology.org. Brightness and contrast autocorrected [return]
45. Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.195. [return]
46. Whanger, 1983, p.303; Wilson, 1986, p.110C; Whanger & Whanger, 1991, p.308. [return]
47. Whanger, 1983, p.303; Guerrera, 2001, p.102. [return]
48. Whanger & Whanger, 1991, p.308. [return]
49. Wilson, I., 1978, "The Turin Shroud," Book Club Associates: London, p.82e. [return]
50. Whanger, 1983, p.303. [return]
51. Wilson, 1986, p.107; Whanger & Whanger, 1991a, p.308; Whanger, A.D. & M.W., "Aspects of the Shroud in Botany and Related Art," in Fanti, G., ed., 2009, "The Shroud of Turin: Perspectives on a Multifaceted Enigma," Proceedings of the 2008 Columbus Ohio International Conference, August 14-17, 2008, Progetto Libreria: Padua, Italy, pp.140-144, 143. [return]
52. Whanger, 1983, p.303; Whanger & Whanger, 1991, p.309; Antonacci, 2000, p.128. [return]
53. Scavone, 1991, p.188. [return]

Posted: 24 January 2017. Updated: 30 March 2017.

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